REPRODUCTION                                      PIH-64


                  Artificial Insemination in Swine

John R. Diehl, Clemson University
Billy N. Day, University of Missouri
Emmett J. Stevermer, Iowa State

Harold H. Hodson, Jr., Cambridge, Iowa
James W. Knight, Virginia Polytechnic
  Institute and State University
Don Levis, University of Nebraska
Pam Miller, Chokio, Minnesota
Vernon Pursel, USDA-ARS, Beltsville,

     The  techniques  and  equipment  necessary  for   artificial
insemination  (AI) in swine are readily available. When consider-
ing whether or not  to  use  AI,  the  following  advantages  are

     AI allows more extensive  use  of  older  boars  on  lighter
weight  females,  and  decreases  the  number  of  boars and time
required for breeding when  heat  is  synchronized.  It  promotes
development of a closed herd where no animals are brought into an
existing herd. This makes it possible for any size  operation  to
maintain  a  more  effective disease control program and to bring
new genetic material into the herd with minimum risk of introduc-
ing new disease organisms.

     When sows are placed in gestation crates  after  first  ser-
vice, AI removes the necessity of taking the sow out of the crate
for a second insemination 12-13 hr. later.  Experienced  herdsmen
may  not have to remove her for the first breeding or heat check-
ing, depending on their system.

     One drawback with the use of AI is that a  higher  level  of
management is required. However, several benefits result from the
greater input of managerial skills.  For  instance,  with  better
records,  a  greater awareness of the true reproductive status of
the breeding herd will result  in  more  effective  selection  of
breeding stock.

     Only healthy disease-free boars  should  be  used  as  semen
donors.  Minimum  standards  of  health  and sanitation for those
interested in merchandising semen  have  been  published  by  the
Livestock  Conservation  Institute, 239 Livestock Exchange Build-
ing, South  St.  Paul,  MN  55075.  Anyone  using  AI  should  be
thoroughly  familiar  with  these guidelines in order to evaluate
the health status of semen donors  regardless  of  source,  i.e.,
farm or boar stud.

Heat Detection

     The most critical factor  in  achieving  maximum  conception
rates with AI is to inseminate females at exactly the right time.
To accomplish this, the breeder must practice proper heat  detec-
tion.  The  normal estrous or heat cycle of the pig is 20-22 days
in length, but it can range from 18-25 days.  The  estrous  cycle
can be divided into segmentsthe period of receptivity to the male
(standing heat or estrus), lasting from a few  hours  to  several
days,  and  the nonreceptive period. The average length of estrus
is 1-2 days for gilts and 2-3 days for sows.  If  the  length  of
estrus  is  longer  or  shorter, the chances of picking the right
time to inseminate a female are lower.

     Estrus detection is a simple technique. The difficulty is in
being  sure  that  detection  is  carried out correctly. When the
female is in heat, she often will try to find the  boar  herself.
There may or may not be evidence of swelling of the vulva. In the
presence of a male, the female will  assume  the  mating  stance;
that is, she stands solidly when pressure is applied on her back.
The final sign of standing heat is the ``ear popping  response,''
where  the  female's  ears  will  repeatedly move toward an erect
position as  she  assumes  the  mating  stance.  Determining  the
correct time to breed is based on the time the female first shows
heat. Therefore, the more frequently heat detection is done,  the
more  likely  it  is that insemination will be carried out at the
appropriate time.

     The best method of heat detection is to check each female in
the  presence  of a boar by applying pressure to her back (try to
sit on her back) to see if she will assume the mating  stance  as
described  (Fig.  1).  Unless these criteria are met, the time of
ovulation cannot be estimated accurately. Using a boar in  combi-
nation  with hand pressure is the most accurate method of finding
females in heat. Researchers have shown that the  presence  of  a
boar  increases the chance of detecting all females truly in heat
by 30 to 40%.

     If you must use a boar to check for heat, how  does  he  fit
into  the AI program? First, the heat check boar can be raised on
the farm. As the heat checker, he should be vasectomized. Second,
by  using  AI, fewer, but genetically superior, boars can be used
to breed many more females than with natural service.  Currently,
researchers  feel  3-4  billion  live  sperm per insemination are
required to insure good  fertility.  The  average  boar  produces
enough  sperm  to  impregnate approximately 1,200-2,000 females a
year. In a normal pen breeding system, a boar rarely breeds  more
than 100-200 females per year.

Boar Training and Semen Collection

     Training a boar for collection of  semen  can  be  the  most
frustrating  part  of  AI unless extreme patience is used in han-
dling the boar; but with this patience, semen collection  can  be
easy. Boars can be trained to mount a dummy sow or a sow in heat.
The dummy sow is preferable since there is no size  incompatabil-
ity,  nor  is  there  a problem with a sow that won't stand still
long enough for ejaculation to be completed. A simple plan for  a
boar  collection dummy is shown in Figure 2. It is usually easier
to train a young boar that has had no sexual contact with females
than  to  train  an older, experienced boar.  Some boars probably
can never be trained, although these are  infrequent.  These  are
likely to be the ``shy breeder'' type.

     As soon as a young boar starts to rant, or at  approximately
7-8  months of age, he can be brought into contact with the dummy
sow to start training.  Don't expect a boar to mount the dummy at
first  contact.  Patience is very important. Handle the boar with
care so that he will get acquainted with the  collector  and  the
dummy.  Be  sure the dummy is placed where there is adequate room
to move around and where the floor is not slick. The dummy should
be securely anchored so it can't be turned over.

     If no mounts occur the first time or  two,  sprinkle  semen,
boar  urine,  or  fluid  from the sheath of a strange boar on the
ends of the dummy. Urine from a sow in heat is much  less  effec-
tive  than  the  odor  of  a  strange boar. If there are still no
attempts to mount, try bringing several females in heat into  the
same  area  as the dummy, and allow the boar to mount a female in
estrus several times. If there are further failures to mount, try
collecting  semen from the boar by placing a sow in heat close to
the dummy; later, try collecting the semen using the dummy alone.
An  alternative method is to start collecting from the boar using
a female in heat adjacent to the dummy, lifting the boar over  to
the  dummy after he has stopped thrusting. If all attempts to use
a dummy fail, then you may be restricted to using a sow  in  heat
for each collection.

     The stimulus for ejaculation in the boar is pressure applied
to  the  spiral  portion  of  the  penis  (Fig. 3). Once the boar
mounts, allow him to start  thrusting,  then  quietly  ease  down
beside  him  from  his  rear and grasp the penis firmly enough to
retain a grip, using your bare or gloved (rubber)  hand.  At  the
same  time, begin pulling the penis (gently) from the sheath, and
rapidly increase the pressure and pulling action until  thrusting
stops.  Prior to collection, it would be helpful to clip the long
sheath hair to aid in gaining a grip.  Some  boars  require  what
seems  to be tremendous pressure to stimulate ejaculation; others
require only slight pressure.

     Occasionally a boar will start backing off  or  sliding  off
the dummy or even a sow when your hand touches his penis. To help
prevent or correct this problem, one  of  the  following  may  be
helpful.  If you're collecting from a dummy (Fig. 2), try attach-
ing a piece of pipe or a board, 2 in. x 4 in., to the bottom side
of  the  dummy  perpendicular  to the length at about the halfway
point. This will give the boar something to hook his  front  legs
around.  Normally an artificial vagina is of no value, but in the
case of the shy-breeder type boar, it may facilitate obtaining  a
collection  impossible to get otherwise. Fill the outer jacket of
the device with 100o F. water, and lubricate the open  end.  Guide
the  boar's  penis into the open end, and wait for ejaculation to
take place. Finally, a combination of artificial vagina and  hand
pressure may be used.

     There are several phases to ejaculation. The  first  portion
may consist of clear fluid and some gel-like substance. There are
no sperm in this portion so it need not be  collected.  Then  the
sperm-rich  fraction  starts (creamy white), followed by more gel
and clear fluid. Some gel will be noticed along with  the  sperm-
rich  fraction.  There  will  be  several  alternating  phases of
sperm-rich and sperm-free fluid; the  sperm-free  phases  do  not
necessarily need to be collected. The time for ejaculation can be
as short as a minute but may be as  long  as  five  minutes.  The
average volume will vary with each boar, but approximately 50-500
cc. ( 1/3 - 1/2 pt.) can  be  expected  (see  Table  1).   Volume
varies with breed, age, and collection frequency.

|Table 1.   Semen  characteris-          |
|tics   and   sperm  output  of          |
|boars.                                  |
|                                        |
|_______________________________________ |
|Number of semen                         |
|collections per week                1-5 |
|Volume (ml.)                    50-500* |
|Sperm concentration             150-750 |
|(million/ml.)                           |
|Total sperm/ejac. (billion)      20-120 |
|Total sperm/week (billion)       80-200 |
|Motile sperm (%)                     80 |
|Morphologically normal sperm (%)     80 |
|_______________________________________ |
|* Gel-free volume                       |

Semen Evaluation

     Figure 4 shows the equipment necessary for collecting semen.
A  wide-mouthed  thermos  bottle  or a plastic (pint size) bottle
with a narrow mouth can be used. If the thermos is used, place  a
couple  of layers of cheesecloth over the mouth to strain out gel
and prevent dirt from falling into the semen (Fig.  3).  To  ease
cleaning,  a plastic bag may also be used as a liner in the ther-
mos. The plastic bottle should be covered  with  1  in.  of  foam
rubber for insulation against cold shock.

     During and following collection, protect the  semen  from  a
rapid  change  in temperature. The insulation from the thermos or
the foam is sufficient protection to  prevent  sperm  damage  for
5-10 min. at 20o F. In a warm room (60-70o F.), strain the gel from
the semen (through a couple of  layers  of  cheesecloth)  if  not
strained  during collection. Note the volume of semen, since this
will dictate how much extender you will need to add, depending on
the number of females to be bred and whether or not semen will be
stored.  Throughout the collection and insemination process, care
should be taken to be sanitary.

     Normally semen will have a chalky, creamy  appearance.  This
shows  that  sperm  concentration  is high. As concentration gets
lower, the opaqueness diminishes. A microscope is  not  essential
to make an AI program work, but it is useful to verify concentra-
tion and motility as well as to  check  for  abnormal  sperm.  An
expensive  microscope  is  not essential, but one that has two or
three power settings ranging from 30 up to 1000X would be needed.
Accurate  sperm  counting  would  require additional equipment. A
hemacytometer can be used to accurately evaluate concentration of
spermatozoa.  This is a critical factor only when extending semen
to ratios that would reduce  concentration  below  three  billion
live  sperm  per insemination. For details on using this or other
equipment properly, contact your state Extension service.

     Visual observation of sperm is not a sure indicator of  fer-
tility.  The  only way to be certain is to test-mate prior to the
breeding season. The test-mating does not, however,  insure  that
the boar will remain fertile for the entire season.

     Frequency of collection  depends  on  the  need  for  sperm.
Ideally,  a  boar  should  be collected no more than two or three
times a week to maximize sperm concentration  and  semen  volume.
When the need arises, collection once or twice a day can be main-
tained for 3-5 days; however,  volume,  sperm  numbers,  and  sex
drive  diminish  rapidly.  This does vary to some extent with the
individual boar.

     The average ejaculate contains enough sperm to inseminate at
least 6-8 females. The best rule to follow is to use the sperm as
soon as possible after collection. Two factors are considered  in
insemination:  Number  of  sperm and volume of fluid. It has been
shown that a minimum of 2  billion  live  sperm  in  an  adequate
volume of fluid are required to obtain adequate conception rates.
Since some sperm will be dead, more than 2  billion  are  needed.
Researchers  have  shown that 50 cc. fluid volume is close to the
minimum, and it is recommended  that  100  cc.  total  volume  be
inseminated to maximize conception rates.

     How much an ejaculate must be extended depends on the volume
of  the  ejaculate  collected, the number of females to be insem-
inated, and whether or not short-term storage will  be  used.  If
five  females  are  to  be  inseminated with fresh semen, a total
volume of 500 cc. of extended semen is needed. If  the  ejaculate
contains  100 cc., then 400 cc. of extender is required to obtain
the required 500 cc. for five females. If some  semen  is  to  be
stored  for  future use, then a higher rate of extension would be
used, and microscopic verification of sperm concentration may  be
advisable.  However,  AI  should  be  a routine procedure in herd
management before short-time  storing  of  semen  is  considered.
Storage  for  more  than  two  days  is  not  advisable  in  most
instances.  Until ``longlife'' extenders  (greater  than  3  days
storage  time)  are  proven  effective by unbiased investigators,
producers would be well advised to be  cautious  regarding  their

     Before extending the semen, measure the temperature  of  the
ejaculate  with a thermometer, and raise or lower the temperature
of the extender to within 2 degrees  of  the  semen.  Gently  but
thoroughly  mix  the two. If extension rates greater than 1:5 are
used, it is good practice to add only half of the extender  at  a
time.  The  extended  semen  is  now  ready  for  insemination or
storage. For storage, allow the mixture to cool to room  tempera-
ture,  70-75o F. Place the container of semen in a small styrofoam
box or in a pan of water (same temperature as the semen), and put
both  in  a refrigerator, or Koolatron, to maintain a temperature
of 60-65o F. (15-18o C.). Since temperature  varies  greatly  among
refrigerators,  check  ahead  of  time to be sure the appropriate
temperature can be maintained. These precautions are necessary to
prevent the mixture from cooling too rapidly, thus causing damage
to the sperm. Higher temperatures (65-70o F.) may be used if there
is  no  bacterial contamination, which is not likely with on-farm

     Usually, semen can be extended at a ratio of 1 part strained
semen  to  3  parts extender without any problem. Higher rates of
extension are not likely to result in a  decrease  in  conception
unless  a  ratio of 1:10 or greater is used. Then it is advisable
to get an estimate of actual sperm concentration so at least  3-4
billion  sperm  are inseminated. To maximize litter size and con-
ception rate, investigators have shown that the  use  of  two  or
more ejaculates pooled from different boars can be advantageous.

     Two formulas for semen extender are presented  in  Table  2.
These  extenders,  available  commercially,  can be stored in dry
form until needed. Both extenders can be stored frozen.  Freezing
into cubes or in plastic 125 cc (4 oz.) bottles is a good storage
method that is convenient to use.

     Skim milk may be used as a semen extender if  the  following
steps  are taken prior to mixing with semen: (1) Heat in a double
boiler to a temperature of 88-90o C. (190-195o F.) for 8-10 min. Be
careful  not  to  scorch the milk. (2) After cooling to room tem-
perature, break one egg and add the egg yolk only (minus the mem-
brane) to 1 qt. of milk. Carefully mix for about 2 min; so as not
to raise a froth. (3) Equalize (within 2o C.) the  temperature  of
the  milk  with  that  of  the semen. (4) Add the extender to the
semen by slowly pouring the milk down the side of the  container.
Semen  extended  with skim milk should be used immediately. Addi-
tional information regarding extenders, as well as other informa-
tion,  can be obtained with the aid of your state swine Extension
specialist or boar stud technician.

Table 2.   Extenders  for  use  with  liquid  boar
                                    BTS*          Kiev
Component                      1 quart1 liter1 quart1 liter
Distilled water (cc.)            **     **     **     **
Glucose (gm.)                   39.1   37.0   63.4   60.0
Potassium chloride (gm.)         0.79   0.75
Sodium bicarbonate (gm.)         1.32   1.25   1.27   1.2
Sodium citrate (gm.)             6.3    6.0    3.96   3.7
EDTA (gm.)                       1.32   1.25   3.91   3.7
Penicillin (million Int. Units)  1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
Dihydrostreptomycin (gm.)        1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
*Beltsville Thawing Solution.
**Put ingredients in a clean beaker and fill to the
appropriate line with distilled water.


     Based on frequency of heat detection,  Table  3  presents  a
``rule  of thumb'' to determine the appropriate insemination time
for sows and gilts using fresh  semen.  It  is  recommended  that
insemination be done at least twice during estrus (Table 3). How-
ever, at this time there is conflicting  evidence  regarding  the
value  of  inseminating more than once during estrus using frozen
semen. At this time frozen semen is not  equal  to  freshly  col-
lected  semen.  On  the  average, conception rates will be 10-20%
lower, and litter size is likely to be about one  to  three  less
pigs  per  litter.  Apparently  the  freezing and thawing process
alters the sperm in such a way as  to  make  them  more  fragile.
Because  they  are  more  fragile, the sperm must receive special
handling as outlined in the thawing procedures received with  the
semen  shipment. When using frozen semen, twice daily heat detec-
tion should be the rule, and insemination should be delayed until
30-35  hr.  after  the  onset  of estrus.  Ovulation occurs about
37-45 hr. after the onset of heat.

|Table  3.   Optimum  time   to        |
|inseminate   females  in  heat        |
|using fresh semen.                    |
|                                      |
|_____________________________________ |
|Frequency of  Best time to inseminate |
|heat detectionafter the onset of heat |
|_____________________________________ |
|Once daily    Every day they stand    |
|Twice daily   12 and 24 hr. after the |
|              onset of heat*          |
|_____________________________________ |
|                                      |
|*Breed at 48 hr. if in heat  3        |
|days. If in heat longer than 3        |
|days,  discontinue   insemina-        |

     After having estrus  females  penned  conveniently,  take  a
breeding catheter, and apply light mineral oil, vegetable oil, or
KY jelly  to  the  catheter  for  lubrication.  Both  the  rubber
spirette  or the plastic type catheters will work; however, there
are advantages and disadvantages to both. Many  producers  prefer
the  spirette  because it is shaped much like a boar's penis, and
the female's reproductive tract grips the spiral end just  as  it
would  during  natural  mating.   This helps minimize backflow of
semen and also is a fair indicator of estrus.  In  addition,  the
spirette  is  flexible, and there is very little chance of injury
to the female. The  disadvantage  is  that  it  must  be  cleaned
promptly  after  use.  A modified spirette is commercially avail-
able, which combines the best of the rubber spirette  and  bovine
catheter, being disposable yet retaining the spiral tip.

     In contrast to the spirette, the  diameter  of  the  plastic
bovine  or  bent-tip  type  of  catheter is small enough that the
female tract cannot grip it. Consequently,  there  is  a  greater
chance  for  backflow to occur. Usually backflow is not a serious
problem unless sperm numbers are expected to be  at  the  minimum
requirement,  such  as  with  frozen  semen.  With  hard  plastic
catheters, there is a greater risk of injury to the female. Also,
if the female is nervous or jumpy, the bovine catheter will slide
in and out with every move, unlike the  spirette  type  which  is
gripped  tightly, flexes and bends, and usually doesn't fall out,
even if the sow jumps away from the inseminator.  Unless used  in
a purebred herd or unless a known disease condition is present in
the herd, the same catheter can be used for several females. When
a  positive  record of ancestry is required or herd health status
is uncertain, use a clean catheter for each female.

     Seldom do females need more restraint than being confined to
a small pen.  Tight restraint or snaring should be avoided. Some-
times having a boar close by will help a nervous female to  stand
more  solidly  for insemination.  Putting out a small quantity of
feed can also be helpful.

     For insemination, put about 100  cc.  extended  semen  in  a
squeeze  bottle (4 oz. size) with a cone-shaped tip (see Fig. 4).
A large syringe can be used but is more difficult to handle. Dur-
ing  cold  weather,  put the bottle of semen in a protected area,
such as a styrofoam box or your  shirt  pocket,  until  ready  to
inseminate the female.

     Place a few drops of lubricant on  the  tip  of  the  rubber
spirette  (not  needed  for  the bovine type), and insert the tip
into the vulva, pointing it toward  the  backbone  to  avoid  the
opening  of  the urethra. Slide the catheter along the top of the
vagina until rather firm resistance is felt. The cervix  is  usu-
ally 8-10 in. (16-25 cm.) inside the vulva but could be deeper in
larger females. In some  gilts,  resistance  may  be  encountered
about  4  in. (10 cm.)  inside the vulva. This may be the remains
of a nonfunctional membrane (hymen). When the cervix is detected,
start  rotating  the spirette counterclockwise (left-hand thread)
until it becomes ``locked'' into the cervix. The opening into the
cervix is nearly impossible to miss as it has the shape of a fun-
nel.  Occasionally, a female will not clamp down on the spirette.
This  occurs  mostly  in  sows  or  if the female is not in heat.
Insert the bovine catheter until the tip is deep into the cervix,
being careful not to penetrate into the uterus where injury could

     When the catheter is in place, connect the semen  container,
and  begin  squeezing  the  semen  through the catheter. If semen
starts running out of the vulva (backflow), release the pressure,
wait  momentarily,  and start again.  Allowing the female to move
around often helps minimize backflow. There  are  times  when  it
seems  nearly  impossible  to  force the semen into the femalethe
opening of the catheter may be jammed against some  tissue.  Work
the  catheter  around  and  continue.  Check  the  opening of the
squeeze bottle; it should be about 1/32 in. in diameter.

Cleaning AI Equipment

     Following use, do not allow semen or other material  to  dry
in  the  equipment. Use plenty of clean water for rinsing. Do not
use soap or detergents to clean anything that will come  in  con-
tact  with semen since there are likely to be residues harmful to
sperm. Clean thoroughly with a brush and tap water to remove  any
gel  particles  left.  Rinse all pieces in distilled or deionized
water; then boil in distilled or deionized water for 20  min.  Do
not boil in tap water as this will leave a mineral deposit on the
equipment. If you are not able to boil the equipment, a temporary
sterilizing  method is to rinse thoroughly with 70% alcohol. How-
ever, do not depend on the alcohol for continued use  since  some
organisms  are immune to its effects. Use of disposable equipment
is encouraged to minimize the chances of a breakdown  in  sanita-
tion,  i.e., catheters, insemination bottles, and plastic bags in
the collection thermos and styrofoam thaw box.

Commercial Semen

     Frozen semen is available, as is liquid semen, in the United
States  and  Canada. However, before obtaining semen from Canada,
be sure the shipment is cleared with customs and with the  Animal
and  Plant  Health  Inspection Service (APHIS). Check the records
accumulated for each sperm-donating boar being  considered.  Your
choice  is just as important as if you were buying him for a per-
manent replacement. Evaluate the usual data regarding  boar  per-
formance,  but  more importantly, evaluate data on his conception
rates, litter size, and his progeny's performance whenever avail-
able.  Remember, the sperm of some boars do not survive well dur-
ing the freezing and thawing process; therefore, it is  important
to check the performance record of the boar before using him.


     A certain amount of record keeping is advisable. Records  of
female identification and the dates in standing heat are valuable
in scheduling breeding and in determining  the  volume  of  semen
required  at  the  next  breeding  period.  In  addition, through
records, irregular cycle lengths, anestrus, and  other  reproduc-
tive problems will become more evident, allowing corrective meas-
ures to be taken. A record including date of semen collection and
strained volume should be maintained for each boar. These records
may also include notes of the type and duration of  any  sickness
the  boar may experience.  Anything that causes body temperatures
to go up as little as 1-2o F. can result in a 60-80%  decrease  in
total  number  of viable sperm for several weeks. The normal body
temperature is approximately 102o or minus 1 degree F.


     To introduce new  genetic  material  into  your  herd  at  a
minimum  risk  of disease and to increase the use of a particular
sire, the pork producer should consider an AI program.  Providing
a  viable  possibility  for  herd improvement, an AI program will
require greater managerial  input  but  will  result  in  greater
awareness  of any reproductive problems in the herd. A minimum of
specialized equipment is needed to carry out  a  successful  pro-
gram. One of the best uses of AI is in bringing new genetics into
the herd using commercial semen and semen collected on  the  farm
for  expanded  use  of  fewer but superior boars. If a few simple
suggestions are followed, AI  will  yield  conception  rates  and
litter  size  equal to or better than natural service using fresh
semen. Use of frozen semen is  likely  to  yield  less  favorable
results.  AI  training  courses  are available through many state
Extension service  shortcourses  and  boar  studs.  Supplies  are
becoming  more  widely  distributed  by boar studs and other sup-
pliers. Be certain to follow directions for use of equipment  and
extenders  as  closely  as  possible to maximize pregnancy rates.
Don't be afraid to ask questions no matter how insignificant.


     Reference to products in this publication is not intended to
be  an  endorsement to the exclusion of others which may be simi-
lar. Persons using such products assume responsibility for  their
use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer.

REV 10/84(5M)

Figure 1. Method of detecting estrus in females. Note the erect ears and rigid
          stance with pressure applied to the back in the presence of the boar.

Figure 2. Boar collection dummy.

Figure 3. The stimulus for ejaculation in the boar is pressure applied to the
          spiral portion of the penis.

Figure 4. Equipment used in Al.

Cooperative Extension Work in  Agriculture  and  Home  Economics,
State  of Indiana, Purdue University and U.S. Department of Agri-
culture Cooperating. H.A. Wadsworth,  Director,  West  Lafayette,
IN. Issued in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914.
It is the policy of the Cooperative Extension Service  of  Purdue
University  that  all  persons  shall  have equal opportunity and
             access to our programs and facilities.