NUTRITION                                                PIH-108


                     By-products in Swine Diets

Elwyn R. Miller, Michigan State University
Palmer J. Holden, Iowa State University
Vernon D. Leibbrandt, University of Wisconsin

Vivian Baathe, Indianola, Iowa
Ted and Ann Diehl, Indianola, Iowa
James D. Green, Columbia, Missouri
Lynn A. Jones, Memphis, Tennessee
Ronnie L. Moser, University of Minnesota
Howard and Marilyn Tucker, Eden, Maryland

     Feed costs comprise the major portion of the  cost  of  pork
production.   While  most  of  the  feed  for  pork  produced  in
developed countries consists of grains and  oilseed  meals,  many
by-products  are  supplied  for  swine diets by the industries in
grain milling, baking, brewing and distilling, fruit  and  veget-
able  processing,  and  meat,  milk,  and egg processing. Many of
these by-products are utilized regularly  in  manufactured  feeds
and  supplements  on  the basis of their appearance in least cost
formula  specifications.   Other   by-products   may   be   major
ingredients  in unique swine diets because of their abundant sup-
ply from nearby sources.

     The purpose of this fact sheet is  to  identify  by-products
that are useful in swine diets, to describe how these by-products
result from processing, to present their nutrient value,  and  to
show how they may be utilized in swine feeding.

Questions to Consider
Before Utilizing By-products

     A number of questions should be asked and answered satisfac-
torily before by-products are incorporated into swine diets.

     1. Are there animal and human health hazards associated with
the by-products?  Toxic substances, disease organisms, and growth
inhibiting factors in a by-product should be checked. If present,
the  by-product should not be considered unless these deleterious
factors can be eliminated or neutralized inexpensively.

     2. Is the nutrient  composition  suited  to  swine  feeding?
Check  nutrient  composition  from  feed  composition  tables and
laboratory analyses. The by-product must be an  effective  source
of available nutrients or energy to be considered as a substitute
for conventional ingredients. By-products with low nutrient  den-
sity and quality should generally be avoided, except, perhaps for
gestating or open sows.

     3. Is the value of the by-product greater than the  cost  of
incorporating  the  by-product into the diet?  The major costs in
the swine diet are for ingredients that provide  energy,  lysine,
or  phosphorus. If the by-product does not provide one or more of
these nutrients at a competitive cost, it should be dropped  from
consideration.  The major ingredients of conventional swine diets
(grains and soybean meal) provide most of  the  requirements  for
energy  and lysine (plus the other indispensable amino acids) and
about one-half of  the  total  phosphorus  requirement.  The  by-
product must replace a portion of these major ingredients without
increasing cost to receive much consideration.

     4. Are there added costs of utilizing the  by-product?   By-
products can directly increase costs because of added transporta-
tion, storage, processing equipment, facility  modifications,  or
labor  required  for  their  use.  Additional  costs  can  result
indirectly  from  reduced  facility  and  equipment  life,  extra
management  time,  feed  wastage,  waste  disposal complications,
increased risk of animal health problems, and reduced performance
caused  by by-product variability. Experience of others and accu-
rate cost of production records for the existing feeding  program
are valuable tools when projecting costs.

     5. Do by-products reduce the cost of production most of  the
time?   The  financial  commitment  necessary to feed by-products
requires a cost-benefit advantage a high percentage of the  time,
not   just   during   periods  of  high  prices  of  conventional
ingredients. A study of the past price patterns for  conventional
ingredients is necessary for making wise decisions.

     6. Is by-product availability and quality sufficiently  con-
sistent  to support longtime use?  A steady supply of by-product,
a reliable price, and uniform quality are essential to consistent
cost savings.

Potential By-products for Swine Diets

     Potential by-products which  may  be  considered  for  swine
diets may be classified from their primary product origin as fol-
     1. Animal
          a. Milk by-products b.  Meat  by-products  c.  Egg  by-
     2. Grain
          a. Milling by-products b. Baking by-products c. Brewing
          by-products d. Distilling by-products
     3. Sugar and starch production
          a. Cane, beet and corn molasses b. Salvage candy
     4. Vegetable
          a. Potato by-products b. Cull beans

     In the following pages, each  of  the  by-products  in  this
classification system will be discussed. The discussion will pro-
vide information on the by-product including definition,  how  it
is  produced, nutritive value, palatability, availability, how it
may be used, level of use in swine diets,  management  considera-
tions, effect of level of use on pig performance, and problems in
its usage.

Milk By-products

     Milk  by-products  have  a  concentration  and  balance   of
nutrients that make them desirable as swine feeds (Table 6). They
are very palatable and highly  digestible  but  usually  are  not
economical  for extensive use in swine feeds.  Liquid by-products
like sweet or acid whey and salvaged whole or skim milk are  less
costly  than dried by-products, but their high water content lim-
its the distance that these materials may be transported economi-

     Liquid milk from surplus production or that  which  has  not
been sold within a prescribed time after processing may be avail-
able for swine feeding.  Whole  milk  contains  about  twice  the
energy  density  but  about  the  same  lysine level as skim milk
(Table 6). Milk may be fed to all classes of swine  but  is  best
suited for pigs from weaning through market weight. About 9.5 lb.
of liquid skim milk is equivalent to 1 lb. of soybean meal  (44%)
on an energy and lysine basis.

Table 1. Rations for pigs consuming 1 gallon  (8  lb.)  of  whole
milk daily.
                                         Pig weight, pounds
Daily diet                       50             100             150
                                            Pounds daily
Milk                             8               8               8
Ground shelled corn              2              3.5              6
Dicalcium phosphate             .02             .02             .03
Calcium carbonate               .02             .03             .04
Salt                            .01             .01             .02
Vitamin-trace mineral mix a     .01             .01             .02
Daily energy and nutrient intake b
Metabolizable energy       4,968   4,740   7,178   6,320   10,968  9,480
Lysine                      13.2    10.5    14.9    12.2    17.7    17.1
Calcium                     10.2    9.0     12.0    11.0    15.0    15.0
Phosphorus                  7.6     7.5     9.4     9.0     13.2    12.0
a PIH-23, Swine Rations, Table 17. March 1983.
b Nutrient Requirements of Swine (1979). National Research  Coun-
  cil, National Academy of Sciences.

Table 2. Feed mixture to be self-fed to pigs from  40  pounds  to
market weight and consuming one gallon of whole milk daily.
Ingredient                Pounds per ton
Ground shelled corn           1,950
Dicalcium phosphate              20
Calcium carbonate                20
Salt                              7
Vitamin-trace mineral mixa        3
Daily energy and nutrient intake b
                      50-pound pig     100-pound pig    150-pound pig
Metabolizable energy 4,918    4,740   7,078    6,320   10,968   9,480
Lysine                13.1    10.5     14.7    12.2     17.4    17.1
Calcium               10.2     9.0     14.6    11.0     21.8    15.0
Phosphorus            7.6      7.5     10.6     9.0     15.6    12.0
a PIH-23, Swine Rations, Table 17. March 1983.
b Assuming that the 50-lb., 100-lb., and 150-lb. pigs consume  2,
  3.5, and 6 lb.  of the feed mixture daily, respectively.
c Nutrient Requirements of Swine (1979). National Research  Coun-
  cil, National Academy of Sciences.

     Daily nutrient requirements of growing-finishing pigs may be
met  by  feeding the rations shown in Table 1. One gallon of milk
(8 lb.) will provide the daily supplemental protein  needs  of  a
pig  that  receives  adequate  energy  from  corn (fortified with
minerals and vitamins) at any weight from 50 lb. to market.  From
an  applied feeding standpoint, pigs from 40 lb. to market weight
may be fed 1 gal. of milk daily plus continual access to a  self-
feeder containing the feed mixture shown in Table 2.

     Milk that has soured under sanitary conditions may  be  fed.
However,  fresh milk is best for young pigs. Care should be taken
to feed either sweet (fresh) or sour milk  rather  than  changing
from  one to another since such changes may cause scouring. Avoid
storing unprocessed milk under unsanitary  conditions  to  reduce
the  growth  of  organisms that could threaten swine health. Milk
packaged for human consumption may require special  equipment  or
additional labor to remove it from cartons.

     Liquid buttermilk is produced from the manufacture of butter
and  has  about the same feeding value as skim milk if it has not
been diluted by churn washings.

     Condensed buttermilk (semisolid) is made by evaporating but-
termilk to about one-third of its original weight. Thus, 1 lb. of
condensed buttermilk is equivalent to 3 lb. of liquid buttermilk.

     Dried buttermilk contains less than 8% moisture, 32  to  35%
crude  protein,  and  6%  fat.  One  pound of dried buttermilk is
equivalent to about 10 lb. of liquid buttermilk or 3 lb. of  con-
densed  buttermilk.  Dried buttermilk is an excellent feed but is
generally too expensive to be used  in  swine  diets  except  for
starter  diets.  Feeding guidelines that apply to dried skim milk
also apply to dried buttermilk.

     Dried skim milk, produced from roller-drying or spray-drying
of  low  fat  milk,  contains about 50% lactose and 33% of a very
high quality protein (table 6). This by-product is very palatable
and  highly  digestible. On an available lysine basis it is equal
to soybean meal (44%). Because dried skim milk is expensive  com-
pared  to  other  feed  ingredients, its use should be limited to
prestarter diets. This is a diet fed during  the  first  2  weeks
after  early  weaning (less than 3 weeks of age). Dried skim milk
is commonly included at 10 to 20% of prestarter diets.

     Liquid sweet whey is the by-product from making hard cheeses
(Cheddar,  Munster, and Monterey Jack). When the cheese curds are
separated, the liquid whey has a temperature of about  100o F,  is
slightly  acid (pH 6.0 to 6.5), and contains about 5% lactose, 1%
high quality protein, and .05% phosphorus of high availability.

     Liquid sweet whey is best suited for pigs  from  50  lb.  to
market  weight.   While  it  may  be fed to sows in gestation, it
should not be fed to lactating  sows  because  consumption  of  a
large  volume  of liquid during lactation may reduce total energy

     The greatest economic benefit occurs when liquid sweet  whey
replaces  soybean  meal or other supplemental protein ingredients
used in growing-finishing pig diets. To  achieve  these  savings,
liquid  sweet  whey  should be available continuously and be pro-
vided free choice with ground corn (or sorghum, wheat, or barley)
fortified  with  vitamins  and minerals. Drinking water should be
withheld so that pigs consume ample whey to meet their  need  for
supplemental  lysine,  the  first limiting amino acid. Daily whey
intake will increase until pigs reach 130 lb. when it will  aver-
age 3.5 gal. per head per day (Table 3). When fed in this manner,
liquid sweet whey can replace 100 lb. of soybean meal (44%  crude
protein) per pig from 40 lb. to market weight.


Table 3. Consumption of liquid sweet whey  provided  continuously
free   choice  with  ground  corn  fortified  with  vitamins  and
Pig weight                                      Daily whey intake
   lb.                                                gal.
    50                                                 2.0
    75                                                 2.5
   100                                                 3.0
   125                                                 3.5
   150                                                 3.5
   200                                                 3.5
a Reported by N.J. Benevenga et al., University of Wisconsin.

     Nipple drinkers with strainers removed or troughs have  been
used  in free choice feeding of liquid sweet whey. To assure ade-
quate access of pigs to liquid whey, the amount of drinking space
or  nipple  drinkers  should be doubled over that used for water.
Although liquid sweet whey has the greatest economic benefit when
substituted for supplemental protein, it can be partially substi-
tuted for complete feed by mixing the dry diet  in  a  5:1  ratio
with  whey to form a slurry. This method will reduce dry feed use
25 to 30%. The slurry distribution system should have main  lines
that  continuously recycle the slurry back to the mixing tank and
add new feed and whey as needed. Dry feed must be  finely  ground
so  that it will pass through a 0.1-in. opening to prevent block-
age of distribution lines. Lines should be dropped from the  main
line  to  each  pen  and should be fitted with a valve to control
feed delivery to coincide with the pig's needs. The entire system
should  be cleaned frequently to prevent yeast growth and reduced

     Fresh liquid sweet whey must be delivered daily. Up  to  40%
of  the nutrients can be lost during a 48-hr. storage period, and
the acid produced will decrease intake. High quality  sweet  whey
that has a consistent pH and temperature is important to minimize
digestive upsets. Cheese press drippings that may contain  up  to
10%  salt  should  not be added to liquid whey. Wash water should
not be added to whey because liquid intake must increase to  com-
pensate for the dilution caused by adding the extra volume.

     Liquid whey is corrosive and reduces the life of  facilities
and equipment.  Storage tanks, troughs and distribution equipment
should be made of plastic, porcelain, or stainless steel. Storage
tanks  should  be  cleaned  at least once a week to inhibit yeast
growth that causes off  flavor  and  reduces  whey  palatability.
Liquid  whey,  especially  acid whey, corrodes concrete slats and
solid floors.

     Feeding liquid whey will increase manure volume  by  twofold
to  threefold  and can produce a wet environment. Manure handling
systems should be designed to handle liquid manure and have  suf-
ficient  capacity to store waste during periods when spreading on
the field is not possible.

     Liquid acid whey is the by-product from cottage cheese  pro-
duction.  Acid  whey  nutrient  composition is similar to that of
sweet whey (Table 6). The principal  difference  is  the  greater
acidity  (pH  4.0) of acid whey. Acid whey is not as palatable as
sweet whey, and voluntary intake is not sufficient to  adequately
supply  the lysine needed to supplement a ground corn diet forti-
fied with vitamins and minerals. Therefore, a 13%  crude  protein
complete  finishing  feed  should  be fed free choice with liquid
acid whey to growing-finishing pigs from 50 lb. to market weight.
Pigs  will  decrease their intake of dry feed by 30% if acid whey
is the only liquid available compared to what they would  consume
if water were available.

     Management of liquid acid whey is similar to that for  sweet
liquid  whey  except  that  acid  whey can be stored up to a week
without deterioration, while sweet whey must be freshly  supplied
and consumed daily.

     Dried whey is produced by  spray  drying  or  roller  drying
liquid  whey.  The  dried product contains 65 to 70% lactose, 13%
crude protein, 0.8% lysine, 0.9% calcium,  0.7%  phosphorus,  and
about  5% salts of sodium and potassium. Dried whey contains high
quality protein and nutrients that are readily  digested  by  the
young  pig.  Since  dried  whey is much less expensive than dried
skim milk and has many of the benefits of milk, it is an  attrac-
tive substitute for milk in starter feeds.

     Dried whey can be included at 20 to 30% of the starter  diet
and  should  be  substituted  on  a  lysine equivalent basis. The
greatest benefit from dried whey  occurs  the  first  week  after
weaning.  The  benefit  may last for only the first week for pigs
weighing over 13 lb. at weaning, while pigs weighing under 13 lb.
may  benefit from dried whey in the diet for 2 to 3 weeks postwe-
aning. When the cost of dried whey exceeds that  of  conventional
ingredients,  judgment  should  be  used  as  to  how  long whey-
fortified diets are fed.

     Dried whey may be included  in  diets  of  growing-finishing
pigs  and breeding animals when substitution is economical. Dried
whey should be limited to 10% of the diet  of  older  pigs,  even
when  it enters the least-cost formula at greater levels, because
lactase activity diminishes with age, and older pigs  are  unable
to  properly  digest  higher levels. Dried whey does not increase
feed intake of either growing-finishing pigs or  sows  in  lacta-

     Dried whey can cause pelleting difficulty and  can  increase
pellet  hardness which reduces palatability. Dried whey diets may
also attract moisture, causing feeds to bridge in feeders.

     Dried whey should be free of brown or tan color which  indi-
cates overheating. This may cause decreased amino acid availabil-
ity. Food grade (edible) dried whey contains  less  ash  and  has
less variation in protein content and greater lysine content than
feed grade whey. Food grade whey tends to support better  perfor-
mance of weanling pigs than feed grade whey.

     Dried whey product or low lactose dried whey is produced  by
removing  some of the lactose prior to drying. Dried whey product
contains 40 to 50% lactose, 16% protein, 1.4% lysine,  1.7%  cal-
cium,  and  1%  phosphorus.  It can be used in starter feeds with
performance similar to that of dried whole whey. Up to 20% may be
included in starter diets when substituted on a lysine equivalent

Meat By-products

     Animal slaughtering and processing generally have three main
by-products:  animal  fat  (tallow  and lard), blood meal (cooker
dried or flash dried), and meat meal or meat and bone meal.

     Animal fat is  obtained  from  the  tissues  of  slaughtered
animals  by  commercial  processes  of  rendering  or extracting.
Animal fat consists primarily of true  fats  (triglycerides)  and
can  be  classified into four types: lard, tallow, yellow grease,
and hydrolyzed animal fat. Lard is rendered from swine, and  tal-
low  is  rendered from cattle, sheep, and goats. Yellow grease is
predominantly tallow but may  also  include  restaurant  greases.
Hydrolyzed  animal fat is obtained from fat processing procedures
commonly used in edible fat processing or soapmaking. It consists
predominantly of fatty acids. All of these fats have a metaboliz-
able energy (ME) value of about 3,550 kcal/lb. They contain  vir-
tually no nutrients other than fat.

     Growing-finishing pigs that are full-fed will generally con-
sume  a fairly constant daily ME caloric intake regardless of the
energy density of the diet.  Thus, as fat  is  incorporated  into
the  diet,  the energy density (kcal/lb.)  increases, and the pig
consumes fewer pounds daily to maintain an  equal  intake  of  ME
(calories).  Rate  of gain in growing-finishing pigs is maximized
by incorporating 5 to 8% of animal fat into a  corn-soybean  meal
diet.   Consequently, feed efficiency is considerably improved as
animal fat is incorporated into the diet. The relative cost of ME
from  fat  vs.  grain  essentially determines its use in growing-
finishing diets.

     Addition of about 10% of animal fat to  the  sow's  diet  in
late  gestation  and  early  lactation  may improve livability of
nursing pigs through the first few days of  life  by  tending  to
increase  birth  weight  and energy reserve of newborn pigs. This
trend is only in herds where livability is less than 80% and  the
benefit is not dramatic (about 3% improvement in livability).

     Animal fat may be added to the  diet  by  melting  and  then
dripping  into  the  feed  mixer when the diet is being prepared.
Some dry-fat products on the market have  good  mixing  and  flow
characteristics but are quite expensive.

     Meat meal and meat and bone meal are made from the trimmings
at  slaughter.   These include bone, tendons, ligaments, inedible
organs, cleaned  entrails,  and  some  carcass  trimmings.  These
differ  from  tankage in that they do not include dried blood and
are produced by a different cooking method. If the meat meal con-
tains  more  than 4.0% phosphorus, it is designated meat and bone
meal. Meat meal typically contains about 8% calcium (Ca)  and  4%
phosphorus  (P)  and meat and bone meal contains about 10% Ca and
5% P. In both meat meal and meat  and  bone  meal,  the  official
specifications  state  that  Ca  shall  not  exceed 2.2 times the
actual P level. Both Ca and P of these products are highly avail-
able when incorporated into the diet.

     Meat meal contains about 55% protein, 3.0% lysine, and 0.35%
tryptophan.   Meat and bone meal contains about 50% protein, 2.5%
lysine, and 0.28% tryptophan (Table 6). The digestibility of pro-
tein and availability of amino acids in these products are not as
high as that of soybean meal. In a corn-meat and bone meal  diet,
tryptophan is the first limiting amino acid. Because of this, the
high ash content and palatability, it is advisable to limit these
products to 5% of the diet.

     Blood meal is produced by  drying  the  blood  collected  at
slaughter by one of several drying processes. The old drying pro-
cedure was by a vat cooker process. This was a slow  drying  pro-
cess,  and much of the lysine in blood meal was poorly available.
Blood meals contain 80 to 90% protein and 8 to  9%  lysine.  How-
ever, with the cooker drying process, less than 20% of the lysine
is available to the pig.

     The newer drying processes include spray drying,  ring  dry-
ing,  or  steam  drum  drying.  All of them are rapid drying pro-
cedures and result in a  product  called  ``flash  dried''  blood
meal.  The  lysine of flash dried blood meals is about 80% avail-
able. The first limiting amino acid in flash dried blood meal  is
isoleucine and limits the use of flash dried blood meals to 5% of
the diet of growing pigs. A value of 7% lysine assigned to  flash
dried  blood  meals is a safe, conservative value to use in least
cost formulation of swine rations. In a growing pig diet, 50  lb.
of  flash  dried  blood meal (FDBM) plus 80 lb. of ground shelled
corn (C) can replace 130 lb. of soybean meal (SBM) containing 44%
protein. Thus, with corn at $2.40/bu. (4.3//lb.) and soybean meal
(44%) at $172/ton (8.6//lb.) the value of flash dried blood  meal
         50 FDBM   +   80C = 130 SBM
            FDBM   =   130 SBM-80C   =   $11.18 - $3.44
                      _____________     _______________
                           50                  50
                   =   15.5//lb. = $310/ton

     Hydolyzed  hog  hair  is  prepared  from  cleaned  hair   of
slaughtered  animals by heat and pressure to produce a by-product
suitable for animal feeding. It contains 94% crude protein (which
is about 75% digestible) and 3.5% lysine (Table 6) of lower avai-
lability than the lysine of soybean meal. Its use should be  lim-
ited  to 2% or 3% in diets of growing-finishing pigs and sows and
may replace an equal amount of soybean meal.

     Feather meal is a by-product resulting from  the  hydrolysis
under  pressure of cleaned feathers from slaughtered poultry. The
lysine level in feather meal is quite low (about  1.5%  available
lysine). Most of this product is used in feeding poultry. Its use
in swine diets should be limited to 3% for growing-finishing pigs
and sows.

     Poultry by-product meal consists of the viscera,  head,  and
feet  from  poultry  slaughter.  These  are  dry or wet rendered,
dried, and ground into a meal. The meal is  93%  dry  matter,  1%
crude fiber, 12% crude fat, 55% crude protein, 3.7% lysine, 0.45%
tryptophan, 4.4% calcium, 2.5% phosphorus, and has an ME value of
1,300 kcal/lb. (Table 6). Poultry by-product meal may be utilized
similarly to meat meal in swine rations.

Egg By-products

     Discarded eggs from candling  stations  and  cull  eggs  and
chicks from hatcheries are by-products of the egg industry.

     Bloodspot eggs from egg candling stations are  often  avail-
able at little or no cost. Eggs, including the shell, contain 60%
moisture, 10% protein, 9% fat, 6% calcium, 0.2%  phosphorus,  and
0.7%  lysine (Table 6). Studies with finishing pigs in which one-
third of the energy of the diet was from eggs showed satisfactory
performance.  This  would  indicate  that  growing-finishing pigs
could safely consume a dozen eggs in the shell daily. This  would
eliminate  the  need for supplemental calcium and reduce the sup-
plemental protein need. A feed available in a  self-feeder  along
with  the  dozen  eggs per pig daily may consist of the following
           Ingredient                          lb./ton
           Ground shelled corn                   1,858
           Soybean meal (44% protein)              100
           Dicalcium phosphate                      30
           Salt                                      7
           Vitamin-trace mineral mixa                5
           aPIH-23, Swine Rations, Table 17.

     Raw eggs in the shell are best utilized by growing-finishing
pigs and are not recommended for young weanling pigs or sows. Raw
egg white contains a protein (avidin)  which  binds  the  vitamin
biotin,   making  it  unavailable.  Biotin  deficiency  has  been
observed in  weanling  pigs  and  sows  but  is  seldom  seen  in
growing-finishing  pigs.  Nevertheless,  pigs  being fed raw eggs
should be observed for  signs  of  biotin  deficiency,  including
cracked  hoof  pads  and  poor  growth.  This may be prevented by
incorporating biotin into the  vitamin-trace  mineral  premix  to
supply 100 mg to 200 mg of biotin per ton of feed.

     Hatchery by-product meal is hatchery waste consisting  of  a
mixture  of  egg  shells,  infertile and unhatched eggs, and cull
chicks. This is cooked, dried, and ground with or without removal
of  part  of  the  fat.  Hatchery by-product meal from layer type
chick hatcheries has  a  higher  protein  level  than  that  from
broiler  chick hatcheries (Table 6) because males are culled from
layer type chicks and go into the by-product. Because of the high
calcium content, hatchery by-product meal should be limited to no
more than 3% of the diet of growing-finishing pigs and  sows.  At
this  level  it will replace the lysine in 2% of soybean meal and
also replace the supplemental calcium.

Grain Milling By-products

     Corn dry milling is the method of producing  cornmeal,  hom-
iny, and corn grits for human consumption and by-products such as
hominy feed and corn bran for consumption by animals.

     Corn bran is the outer coating of the corn kernel  including
the hull and small amounts of the underlying gluten. It contain 5
to  10%  crude  fiber,  and  consequently,  is  lower  in  energy
(ME=1,200  kcal/lb.) than the whole corn grain.  It is similar to
whole corn grain in protein,  lysine,  calcium,  and  phosphorus.
Its  energy value is similar to that of oats and may be used like
oats in swine diets.

     Hominy feed is a mixture of corn bran, corn germ and part of
the  starchy  portion  of  the  kernel. Hominy feed is similar in
analysis to corn, being higher in fat (7%) and  fiber  (6%)  than
corn  but  similar  in energy (ME=1,400 kcal/lb.), protein (10%),
lysine (0.3%), and tryptophan  (0.1%)  concentrations.  It  could
replace corn in swine diets on an equivalent basis.

     Corn wet milling is the process of producing cornstarch  and
corn  oil  for  human  consumption.  In the wet milling process a
bushel of no. 2 corn (56 lb.)  yields 31.5 lb. of starch, 3.5 lb.
of  germ,  9.2  lb.  of gluten feed, and 2.7 lb.  of gluten meal.
Corn oil is extracted from the germ, and the residue is added  to
the gluten feed.

     Corn gluten feed is a mixture of gluten meal  and  bran  and
may  contain  some solubles and part of the germ. On an air-dried
basis corn gluten feed contains about 22% protein but is  low  in
lysine (0.6%), tryptophan (0.1%), and energy (ME=1,100 kcal/lb.).
On an energy basis corn gluten feed is worth about 70% of that of
corn.  Because  of  its high fiber (10%) and low energy value for
swine, corn gluten feed is better utilized by cattle.

     Corn gluten meal may be either a 40% or a  60%  protein  by-
product  of  wet  milling. Its value as a replacement for soybean
meal in swine diets is limited because of its low  lysine  (0.8%)
and tryptophan (0.2%) values. Because of its cryptoxanthine (yel-
low) content, corn gluten meal is used primarily for  poultry  in
layer  rations for egg yolk color and in broiler rations for skin

     By-products of milling wheat for flour consist primarily  of
the  bran  and  aleurone layers of the kernel and the germ. Wheat
flour by-products are generally identified by their fiber  level.
A  wheat  milling  by-product  with more than 9.5% fiber is wheat
bran; that with less than 9.5% fiber may be classified  as  wheat
middlings;  if fiber is less than 7%, it's wheat shorts; and that
with less than 4% fiber is red dog.

     Wheat  bran  typically  contains  about  15%  protein,  0.6%
lysine, 0.18% tryptophan, and 1.15% phosphorus. The phosphorus in
bran is poorly available, and because of the high  fiber  content
(11%) the energy value (ME=890 kcal/lb.)  is low. Wheat bran is a
good laxative agent to incorporate into the sow diet around  far-
rowing,  but  because  of its low ME value, it is not recommended
for growing pig or lactation diets.

     Wheat middlings and wheat shorts are similar in  nutritional
value.  They  both  consist  of portions of flour, bran, aleurone
layer, and germ from the flour milling process. Both are  consid-
erably  higher  in energy value (ME=1,300 to 1,400 kcal/lb.) than
bran. They contain about 16%  protein,  0.6%  lysine,  and  0.18%
tryptophan.  They  have  about  0.9%  phosphorus, which is poorly
available.  Middlings and shorts may  constitute  up  to  30%  of
corn-soybean meal growing-finishing pig diets, replacing portions
of the corn and soybean meal on an equal lysine basis. These  by-
products  have good pellet binding properties and are used exten-
sively in commercially-pelleted swine feeds.

     There are three by-products of  processing  rice  grain  for
human  consumption. These are rice bran, fat extracted rice bran,
and rice polishings.

     Rice bran is very palatable and readily consumed when fresh.
However,  because of its high unsaturated fat content (13%), ran-
cidity occurs, causing objectionable odor and taste. The  quality
and  value of rice bran (ME=1,350 kcal/lb.) also varies depending
upon the amount of rice hulls included  in  the  bran.  The  high
fiber  of hulls and poor digestibility rapidly reduces the energy
value of rice bran. The phosphorus is  largely  unavailable.  Fat
extracted rice bran has a lower energy value (ME=1,200 kcal/lb.),
but the problem of rancidity in storage is eliminated.

     Rice polishings is the by-product of polished rice for human
consumption.   It  does  not vary as much in nutritional value as
rice bran and can be a useful diet ingredient for swine. The com-
bination  of  rice  polishings  and  rice bran may be included in
growing-finishing diets at levels of 20 to 30% with  satisfactory
performance. The cost of transporting these rice by-products from
the source of production and  processing  (Arkansas,  Texas,  and
Louisiana  in  the  U.S.A.)  virtually  eliminates them from con-
sideration by swine producers in the upper Midwest.

Grain Fermentation By-products

     The principal by-products  of  the  brewing  and  distilling
industries  which  are  useful  in  swine diets are brewers dried
grains from the beer brewing industry,  distillers  dried  grains
from  the  commercial  alcohol  distilling industry, and stillage
from on-the-farm alcohol production.

     Brewers dried grains is the dried residue of barley  malting
and  often  contains other grains in the brewing of beer. It is a
low energy feed (ME=1,000 kcal/lb.) containing 13  to  16%  crude
fiber.  Brewers  dried  grains  has  a  fairly high protein level
(25%), but the quality is low because of  low  levels  of  lysine
(0.9%)  and  tryptophan  (0.3%). Because of its low energy value,
this ingredient is not very useful in growing-finishing or lacta-
tion  diets  but  could  be used in gestation diets with grain to
meet the lysine requirements.

     Distillers dried grains is the residue remaining  after  the
removal  of  alcohol and water from a yeast-fermented grain mash.
The coarse material may be dried and marketed  as  such,  or  the
solubles may also be dried and added to the dried grains and sold
as distillers dried grains with solubles. Distillers  by-products
are  primarily  from  corn  but  may also be from barley or other
grains. Although quite high in protein (25%) it retains the  poor
amino  acid  balance  of  grains  and is particularly limiting in
lysine (0.6%).

     Stillage is the wet mash resulting from on-farm alcohol pro-
duction with corn as the grain. It is usually fed wet, which lim-
its the pig's ability to consume large  quantities.  On  an  air-
dried basis (90% dry matter), protein level ranges from 11 to 27%
and lysine from 0.2 to 0.6%. Dry matter of the wet product varies
from  7  to  20% depending upon the thoroughness of separation of
liquids from solids. Liquid stillage may be kept for about a week
without  spoilage. Stillage may be offered free choice along with
a typical growing diet to  growing-finishing  pigs.  Stillage  is
better  utilized  by  ruminants than by swine because of the poor
protein quality and the high fiber and water content.

Bakery By-products

     Dried bakery product is a mixture of bread,  cookies,  cake,
crackers,  and doughs. It is similar to corn in protein and amino
acid composition (10% protein, 0.3% lysine, and 0.1%  tryptophan)
but  higher  in  fat  (10%) and energy (ME=1,650 kcal/lb.). Dried
bakery product may replace up to one-half of the  corn  in  corn-
soybean  meal  growing-finishing  and  sow diets and up to 20% in
starter diets. The salt content may be fairly high, and the stan-
dard  salt supplementation could be deleted. Keep water available
for the pigs at all times. Dried bakery product could be  fed  to
growing-finishing pigs on a free-choice basis with a 20% protein,
corn-soybean meal diet that contains increased (double) levels of
minerals and vitamins.

Sugar and Starch By-products

     Cane molasses and bagasse  are  by-products  of  cane  sugar
refining.  Bagasse  is the material left after the juice has been
squeezed from the plant.  Molasses is that portion of  the  juice
remaining  after  further  refining  in  the production of sugar.
These by-products are economically utilized only in areas produc-
ing  and  refining sugar cane. Cane molasses and bagasse in a 4:1
ratio can be incorporated into growing-finishing diets at  10  to
30% if the diet is properly balanced with soybean meal, minerals,
and vitamins; near maximal growth rate  can  still  be  attained.
Excessive  use of molasses can induce scouring. Adding bagasse at
one-fourth of the molasses level will aid in reducing this  prob-
lem.   However,  because of the high fiber concentration (45%) of
bagasse, growth  rate  of  growing-finishing  pigs  will  not  be
optimum.  Molasses  and bagasse may be used as a laxative much as
wheat bran to prevent constipation of sows around farrowing time.

     Beet molasses and beet pulp are by-products of  the  produc-
tion  and  refining of beet sugar. The high fiber content of beet
pulp, much like that of bagasse in sugar cane, limits its use  to
that of sows around farrowing time as a laxative feed. Dried beet
molasses may be used to a level of 10% (replacing  corn)  in  the
growing-finishing diet for good performance.

     Corn molasses is  a  by-product  of  corn  sugar  (dextrose)
manufacture  from  corn starch. Corn, cane, and beet molasses all
have similar nutrient analyses, except that  corn  molasses  con-
tains practically no protein or calcium.

     Salvage candy is any candy that is not marketable for  human
consumption    including    excess   production,   out-of-season,
misshapen, or stale candy. Stale candy  that  never  reaches  the
retailers shelf and outdated holiday candy are two major sources.
The nutritive value of salvage candy varies greatly. If  it  con-
tains  peanuts  or  almonds it may contain a fairly high level of
protein and would be more valuable than jellybeans, for  example,
which supply principally energy. Unless protein analyses are per-
formed it would be best to assume no protein value and more  soy-
bean  meal will need to be used in the diet when candy is substi-
tuted for corn. Depending on price, the cost of  additional  pro-
tein  may more than offset the value of corn saved. Salvage candy
could probably replace up to one-half of  the  corn  in  growing-
finishing diets if amino acids are properly balanced.

Vegetable By-products

     Cull potatoes are available in large  quantities  each  fall
after  harvest  and in lesser amounts at other times of the year.
Raw potatoes have 22% dry matter, which is primarily starch.  Raw
potatoes  are unpalatable to the pig and poorly digested. Cooking
improves both the palatability and digestibility.  Cooking can be
accomplished by boiling in water or by steaming. Potatoes contain
2% protein and have an ME value of  370  kcal/lb.  on  a  freshly
cooked  basis.  Because  of the energy value, cooked potatoes may
replace about one-half of the corn  in  growing-finishing  diets.
When making a corn-soybean meal-base mix diet to feed free choice
with cooked potatoes,  the  protein  source  (soybean  meal)  and
vitamin-mineral  source  (base mix as in Table 14 of PIH-23 Swine
Rations) should be increased 50%. For example, a ton of a  normal
16% protein grower diet consists of 1,540 lb. of corn, 400 lb. of
soybean meal, and 60 lb. of a base mix. When feeding cooked pota-
toes  free  choice,  600  pounds of soybean meal and 90 pounds of
base mix should be mixed with 1,310 lb. of corn. This mixture may
be self-fed to growing-finishing pigs along with unlimited access
to cooked potatoes.

     Several dried processed potato products are sometimes avail-
able  for  feeding  to  swine  or  other livestock. These include
potato meal, potato flakes, potato slices, and potato pulp.

     Potato meal is from cull potatoes that  are  sliced,  dried,
and then ground to a meal consistency. This dried raw potato meal
is not well digested by the pig and even when limited to  30%  of
the  diet,  there is often diarrhea and reduced performance. This
product is uncooked, and both starch and protein are poorly  dig-
ested. This product is better utilized by cattle than by pigs.

     Potato flakes are prepared by steaming clean washed potatoes
for  30  minutes  in  a  tank in which pressure rises to 10 to 15
lb./sq. in. After they are steam-cooked, they are mashed,  passed
over drying rollers, and finally removed as thin flakes. Digesti-
bility is good. Best performance is obtained when  potato  flakes
are  limited  to  30 to 40% of the diet, but satisfactory perfor-
mance has been obtained when potato flakes replace up  to  50  to
60% of the cereals in the diets of starting, growing, and finish-
ing pigs. Potato flakes contain 8 to 9% protein, 2 to  3%  fiber,
and about 75% starch. Metabolizable energy (about 1,600 kcal/lb.)
is equal to or higher than that of corn.

     Potato slices are prepared  by  passing  raw  potato  slices
through a hot air rotating drier at 175o F for about 2 hours. This
allows for both cooking  and  drying.  Inadequate  cooking  could
reduce  their  nutritive  value. Potato slices may replace barley
and corn in growing-finishng diets. Use up  to  20%  cooked-dried
potato slices in the grower-diet and 40% in the finisher diet.

     Potato Chilps and French fries contain  considerable  veget-
able  fat  taken  up  in  deep  frying. They consist of about 50%
starch, 35% fat, 5% protein, and 3%  minerals,  mainly  potassium
and  sodium  salts.  They  have  a  high energy value (ME = 2,000
kcal/lb.) but little else of nutritional  value.  They  could  be
used as shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Daily rations using potato chips or fries.
                    Growing-finishing pigs, wt. lb.      Sow in
Ingredient         50             100            200    gestation
                            Daily pounds per animal
Shelled corn       1.5            2.0             3        1.5
Potato chips or
    fries           .5            1.5             3        1.5
40% commercial
    supplement     1.0            1.0             1        1.0
                  ___             ___            ___       ___
    Total          3.0            4.5             7        4.0

Table 5. Ton mixes of grower, finisher and gestation diets  using
cooked and dried navy beans.
Ingredient                     Grower     Finisher      Gestation
                                         Pounds per ton
Corn, ground shelled            1,390       1,500         1,434
Soybean meal (44% CP)             260         150           200
Cull beans, dried cooked          300         300           300
Dicalcium phosphate                24          24            34
Calcium carbonate                  16          16            20
Salt                                7           7             7
Vitamin-trace mineral mixa          3           3             5
                               _____       _____          _____
    Total                       2,000       2,000         2,000
a PIH-23, Swine Rations, Table 17.

     Cull beans from the dry navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)  crop
are available in considerable quantities at the fall harvest, and
lesser amounts are available at other times during the year. Navy
beans,  like  potatoes, must be cooked to obtain good performance
of growing-finishing pigs. Navy beans  contain  factors  such  as
trypsin  inhibitor  and  hemaglutinin, which reduce digestibility
and palatability. These factors are inactivated  in  the  cooking
process  (steam  cooking  for 30 min.). Cooking also improves the
utilization of the complex carbohydrated in beans.  If  the  cull
beans  are  not cooked, they will be better utilized by ruminants
than by swine.

     Cooked, air-dried (90% dry matter) cull navy beans  are  57%
digestible carbohydrates, 23% protein, 4% fiber, 4% minerals, and
1% fat. They contain about 1.5%  lysine.  Grower,  finisher,  and
gestation  diets  (ton  mixes)  using  15%  of cooked, dried, and
ground cull navy beans are shown in Table 5.

By-product Nutrient Composition

     The metabolizable energy density (kcal/lb., as fed) and ana-
lyses  (%, as fed) of dry matter, fiber, protein, lysine, trypto-
phan, calcium, and phosphorus of by-products  are  summarized  in
Table  6.  By-products vary greatly in their nutrient content and
also in the availability  of  the  nutrients  to  swine.  Average
values  are  listed.  If a by-product is to make up a substantial
part of the diet, it would be well to get one or more analyses of
dry  matter, crude protein, lysine, calcium, and phosphorus. Many
of the state departments of agriculture have laboratories capable
of  analyzing  feeds or feed ingredients for these components. In
addition, there are feed  company,  university,  and  independent
laboratories.  Check  with  a  livestock specialist in your state
cooperative Extension service.

Calculating the Value of By-products

     Formulas have been developed and are presented in Table 7 to
enable  you to determine the value of air-dried by-products which
may be incorporated into grower diets. The system of  by-products
evaluation  presented  is based upon the value of the ingredients
in a standard corn-soybean meal grower diet which are replaced by
the by-product. For example, the value (//lb.) of dried whey pro-
duct is 0.98 (100C + 96S +4P) : 200 in which 200 lb. of this  by-
product will replace 100 lb. of corn, 96 lb. of soybean meal, and
4 lb. of dicalcium phosphate. If the current price of corn (C) is
4.5//lb.  ($2.52/bu.),  soybean mail (S) is 9//lb., and dicalcium
phosphate is 14//lb., then the value of dried whey product is:

     0.98 (100 x 4.5 + 96 x 9 + 4 x 14) : 200 = 6.7//lb.

     The formulas were developed by balancing the grower diet  on
lysine  and  phosphorus,  two of the crucial and costly nutrients
and eveloping a coefficient to account for  metabolizable  energy
(ME)  density.  This  was  accomplished by dividing the ME of the
diet containing dried whey product (1436 kcal/lb.) by the  ME  of
the  standard  corn-soybean  meal  grower  diet (1,458 kcal/lb.).
Thus, 1,436 : 1,458  =  0.98.  Growing-finishing  pigs  that  are
full-fed  will  consume  diets  to equal ME intake. Therefore, it
will take slightly more of the diet with dried whey  product  (2%
more)  to  equal the kilocalories of ME of an equal amount of the
standard corn-soy grower diet. Consequently,  the  value  of  the
diet  containing  this  product  is  only 98% of the value of the
standard diet.

Table 6. By-product nutrient composition (as fed).
                         Metabolizable Dry  Crude       Amino acids
By-product                  energy    matterfiberProtein LYS  TRP   Ca   P
Milk by-products           kcal/lb.                  Percent
Liquid whole milk             290      12.8   0    3.4  0.25  0.05 0.12 0.09
Dried whole milk             2,200     97.0  0.1  26.0  2.09  0.37 0.91 0.75
Liquid skim milk              160      9.5    0    3.4  0.30  0.05 0.12 0.10
Dried skim milk              1,520     94.0  0.3  33.5  2.50  0.45 l.25 1.00
Liquid buttermilk             155      9.7    0    3.3  0.26  0.04 0.13 0.09
Condensed buttermilk          493      29.1  0.1  10.8  0.78  0.12 0.44 0.26
Dried buttermilk             1,380     93.0  0.4  32.0  2.20  0.47 1.32 0.93
Liquid sweet whey             103      7.1    0    0.9  0.07  0.01 0.05 0.05
Liquid acid whey              95       6.6    0    0.8  0.07  0.02 0.10 0.08
Dried whey                   1,445     94.5  0.2  12.0  0.80  0.13 0.90 0.70
Dried whey product           1,240     92.0  0.2  16.0  1.40  0.22 1.69 1.13
Meat by-products
Animal fat                   3,550     95.0   0    0.0    0   0.0    0  0.0
Meat meal                    1,200     92.0  0.4  55.0  3.00  0.35 8.20 4.10
Meat and bone meal           1,100     93.0  0.4  50.0  2.50  0.28 10.105.05
Flash dried blood meal       1,300     90.0  0.6  85.0  7.00  1.00 0.30 0.25
Hydrolyzed hog hair          1,000     95.0  1.0  94.0  3.50  0.50 0.20 0.80
Hydrolyzed feather meal      1,000     94.6  1.0  85.0  1.94  0.50 0.20 0.80
Poultry by-product meal      1,300     93.0  1.0  55.0  3.70  0.45 4.40 2.50
Egg by-products
Bloodspot eggs                500      40.0   0   10.0  0.50  0.10 6.00 0.20
Hatchery by-product meal-
    broiler chick type        800      90.0   0   22.2  1.16  0.22 24.600.33
Hatchery by-product meal-
    egg chick type           1,000     90.0   0   32.3  1.83  0.30 17.200.60
Grain by-products
Corn bran                    1,200     89.0  8.5   8.0  0.20  0.10 0.03 0.20
Hominy feed                  1,400     90.0  5.5  10.4  0.30  0.10 0.05 0.40
Corn gluten feed             1,100     90.0 10.0  22.0  0.60  0.12 0.30 0.70
Corn gluten meal             1,400     91.0  2.0  42.0  0.80  0.23 0.03 0.45
Wheat bran                    890      90.0 11.0  15.0  0.56  0.18 0.10 1.15
Wheat middlings              1,300     88.0  7.0  16.0  0.64  0.18 0.10 0.90
Rice bran                    1,350     91.0 12.0  13.0  0.60  0.10 0.10 1.30
Rice bran, fat extracted     1,200     91.0 11.4  16.0  0.60  0.18 0.13 1.32
Rice polishings              1,500     90.0  4.0  12.0  0.50  0.10 0.05 1.20
Brewers dried grains         1,000     92.0 13.0  25.0  0.90  0.30 0.25 0.50
Distillers dried grains      1,300     93.0 11.0  25.0  0.60  0.20 0.10 0.35
Distillers dried grains
    with solubles            1,540     91.0 10.0  27.0  0.70  0.20 0.15 0.70
Stillage                      150      10.0  1.0   3.0  0.08  0.02 0.02 0.10
Dried bakery by-product      1,650     92.0  1.0  10.0  0.30  0.10 0.06 0.47
Starch and sugar by-products
Cane molasses                1,060     77.0   0    4.5  0.20  0.10 0.81 0.08
Dried cane bagasse            500      91.5 44.5   2.0  0.10  0.05 0.60 0.20
Beet molasses                1,060     77.5   0    6.6  0.15  0.05 0.12 0.03
Dried beet pulp              1,020     90.6 18.2   8.7  0.65  0.09 0.68 0.09
Corn molasses                1,200     73.0   0    0.4    0   0.0  0.04 0.04
Salvage candy                1,600     93.5   0    3.0    0    0   0.06 0.06
Vegetable and fruit by-products
Cooked cull potatoes          370      22.0  0.7   2.2  0.06  0.02 0.02 0.06
Potato meal                  1,100     90.0  2.0   9.0  0.25  0.10 0.10 0.30
Potato flakes                1,600     90.0  2.0   9.0  0.25  0.10 0.10 0.30
Potato slices                1,500     90.0  2.0   9.0  0.25  0.10 0.10 0.30
Potato pulp                  1,000     90.0  6.0   7.7  0.20  0.10 0.10 0.30
Potato chips and fries       2,000     90.0  2.0   5.0  0.20  0.10 0.10 0.30
Cooked cull dry beans        1,400     90.0  4.0  23.0  1.50  0.20 0.20 0.40

Table 7. Formulas for calculating the value of dry by-products in
a corn-soybean meal (44) grower diet.
                             Max.              Ingredients per ton (2,000 lb.)
By-products                  use LYS     ME      Corn   Soy    Max.    Dical  
                             (%) (%) (kcal/lb.)  (C)    (S)    (lb.)    (P)   
Corn-soy standard grower diet                   1,550   400      0       24   
Dry milk by-products
Dried whole milk              10 2.09  2,200    1,500   252     200      22   
Dried skim milk               10 2.50  1,520    1,530   222     200      22   
Dried buttermilk              10 2.20  1,380    1,510   242     200      22   
Dried whey                    10 0.80  1,445    1,404   348     200      22   
Dried whey product            10 1.40  1,240    1,450   304     200      20   
Dry meat by-products
Animal fat                    6   0    3,550    1,418   410     120      26   
Meat meal                     5  3.00  1,200    1,582   285     100      7    
Meat and bonemeal             5  2.50  1,100    1,571   303     100      0    
Flash dried blood meal        5  7.00  1,300    1,711   135     100      28   
Hydrolyzed hog hair           3  3.50  1,000    1,573   317     60       24   
Hydrolyzed feather meal       3  1.94  1,000    1,538   352     60       24   
Poultry by-product meal       3  3.70  1,300    1,582   312     60       20   
Dry hatchery by-products
Hatchery by-product meal,
    broiler type chick        3  1.16   800     1,520   370     60       24   
Hatchery by-product meal,
    egg chick type            3  1.83  1,000    1,535   355     60       24   
Grain by-products
Corn bran                     10 0.20  1,200    1,356   394     200      24   
Hominy feed                   60 0.30  1,400     386    364    1,200     24   
Corn gluten feed              20 0.60  1,100    1,214   336     400      24   
Corn gluten meal              20 0.80  1,400    1,244   306     400      24   
Wheat bran                    10 0.56   890     1,408   342     200      24   
Wheat middlings               30 0.64  1,300    1,050   300     600      24   
Rice bran                     20 0.60  1,350    1,214   336     400      24   
Rice bran, fat extracted      10 0.60  1,200    1,386   364     200      24   
Rice polishings               20 0.50  1,500    1,198   352     400      24   
Brewers dried grains          10 0.90  1,000    1,409   341     200      24   
Distillers dried grains       10 0.60  1,300    1,386   364     200      24   
Distillers dried grains,
    w solubles                10 0.70  1,540    1,394   356     200      24   
Bakery and sugar by-products
Dried bakery by-product       40 0.30  1,650     777    373     800      24   
Cane molasses                 10 0.20  1,000    1,356   394     200      24   
Dried cane bagasse            5  0.10   500     1,454   396     100      24   
Beet molasses                 10 0.15  1,060    1,352   398     200      24   
Dried beet pulp               5  0.65  1,020    1,474   376     100      24   
Corn molasses                 10  0    1,200    1,341   409     200      24   
Salvage candy                 20  0    1,600    1,123   427     400      24   
Dry potato and bean by-products
Potato meal                   20 0.25  1,100    1,161   389     400      24   
Potato flakes                 40 0.25  1,600     762    388     800      24   
Potato slices                 40 0.25  1,500     762    388     800      24   
Potato pulp                   10 0.20  1,000    1,356   394     200      24   
Potato chips and fries        30 0.20  2,000     950    400     600      24   
Cooked cull dry beans         15 1.50  1,400    1,390   260     300      24   

                                 Diet   Formula calculating value  
By-products                        ME    of by-product (cents/lb.)a
Corn-soy standard grower diet    1,458                              
Dry milk by-products                                                
Dried whole milk                 1,530    1.05b(50C+148S+2P)*:200   
Dried skim milk                  1,463    1.01(20C+178S+2P):200     
Dried buttermilk                 1,450    0.99(40C+158S+2P):200     
Dried whey                       1,454    1.00(146C+52S+2P):200     
Dried whey product               1,436    0.98(100C+96S+4P):200     
Dry meat by-products                                                
Animal fat                       1,580    1.08(132C-10S-2P):120     
Meat meal                        1,460    1.00(-32C+115S+17P):100   
Meat and bonemeal                1,460    1.00(-21C+97S+24P):100    
Flash dried blood meal           1,450    0.99(-161C+265S-4P):100   
Hydrolyzed hog hair              1,444    0.99(-23C+83S):60         
Hydrolyzed feather meal          1,443    0.99(12C+48S):60          
Poultry by-product meal          1,456    1.00(-32C+88S+4P):60      
Dry hatchery by-products                                            
Hatchery by-product meal,                                           
    broiler type chick           1,450    0.99(30C+30S):60          
Hatchery by-product meal,                                           
    egg chick type               1,443    0.99(15C+45S):60          
Grain by-products                                                   
Corn bran                        1,428    0.98(194C+6S):200         
Hominy feed                      1,400    0.96(1,164C+36S):1,200    
Corn gluten feed                 1,378    0.95(336C+64S):400        
Corn gluten meal                 1,438    0.98(306C+94S):400        
Wheat bran                       1,400    0.96(142C+58S):200        
Wheat middlings                  1,400    0.96(500C+100S):600       
Rice bran                        1,428    0.98(336C+64S):400        
Rice bran, fat extracted         1,428    0.98(164C+36S):200        
Rice polishings                  1,458    1.05(352C+48S):400        
Brewers dried grains             1,408    0.97(141C+59S):200        
Distillers dried grains          1,438    0.98(164C+36S):200        
Distillers dried grains,                                            
    w solubles                   1,462    1.00(156C+44S):200        
Bakery and sugar by-products                                        
Dried bakery by-product          1,518    1.04(773C+27S):800        
Cane molasses                    1,414    0.97(194C+6S):200         
Dried cane bagasse               1,408    0.97(96C+4S):100          
Beet molasses                    1,414    0.97(198C+2S):200         
Dried beet pulp                  1,436    0.98(76C+24S):100         
Corn molasses                    1,428    0.98(209C-9S):200         
Salvage candy                    1,472    1.01(427C-27S):400        
Dry potato and bean by-product                                      
Potato meal                      1,378    0.95(389C+11S):400        
Potato flakes                    1,498    1.03(788C+12S):800        
Potato slices                    1,458    1.00(788C+12S):800        
Potato pulp                      1,408    0.97(194C+6S):200         
Potato chips and fries           1,608    1.10C                     
Cooked cull dry beans            1,442    0.99(160C+140S):300       

a To calculate value of by-product in cents per pound, enter  the
current  prices  of  corn (C), soybean meal 44 (S), and dicalcium
phosphate (P) in cents per pound. For  example,  if  the  current
price  of  corn  is  4.5//lb. ($2.52/bu.), soybean meal is 9//lb.
($180/ton), and dicalcium phosphate is 14//lb.  ($280/ton),  then
the value of dried whole milk is 1.05 (50 x 4.5/ + 148 x 9/ + 2 x
14/) : 200 = 8.3//lb. At these prices if you can obtain the dried
whole  milk  for less than 8.3//lb. ($166/ton) you might consider
purchasing this by-product but only after you have satisfactorily
considered  the important questions at the beginning of this fact
b This coefficient is obtained by dividing the ME value  of  this
diet  (1,530  kcal/lb.)  by the ME value of the corn-soy standard
diet (1,458 kcal/lb.). Thus, 1,530 : 1,458 = 1.05.
* Numbers within the parentheses are the pounds of corn,  soybean
meal,  and  dicalcium  phosphate  replaced by the by-product. For
example, 200 lb. of dried whole milk replaces 50 lb. of corn, 148
lb. of soybean meal, and 2 lb. of dicalcium phosphate.

NEW 6/87 (5M)

Cooperative Extension Work in  Agriculture  and  Home  Economics,
State  of Indiana, Purdue University and U.S. Department of Agri-
culture Cooperating. H.A. Wadsworth,  Director,  West  Lafayette,
IN. Issued in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914.
It is the policy of the Cooperative Extension Service  of  Purdue
University  that  all  persons  shall  have equal opportunity and
             access to our programs and facilities.